Quality virtual time spent tasting with Querciabella

A few years back I made my first visit to Querciabella, in September 2017, to be exact. Their position in Ruffoli east of the Greve hamlet and the eponymous river is one of the most distinct and perhaps least travelled of Greve’s frazioni. With stunning views towards the Val di Greve, the Colle di Panzano and the amphitheatre of Lamole, Ruffoli carries its very own perspective, one that is unlike any other perch where the Classico are made in Chianti. Several weeks ago I caught up with Querciabella’s n groot winemaker Manfred Ing for a virtual session, replete with a ten-deep taste through of his (and their) lekker wines.

Ruffoli, Greve in Chiani

Related – A river runs through Greve

The Ruffoli hill may not qualify for Chianti Classico’s newly minted UGA (Ùnita Geografiche Aggiuntive), but make no mistake. Ruffoli is the definition of a communal sub-zone in requiem of introspective investigation for its distinct soils, elevation, singularities and peculiarities. It is, as I have said before, “the Chianti Classico poster child for seeing the vineyards through the trees.” Along with Jurji Fiore’s Poggio Scalette and Il Tagliato by Marco e Elena Kupfer there forms a special bond for Ruffoli’s combination of elevation, thick forests and conglomerate soils that have been excavated from beneath those heavy woods. If Querciabella’s decisive resource and secret weapon are vineyard holdings in two other Classico communes, those being Radda and Gaiole, Ruffoli remains the epicentre and the wines can be imagined as residing at the rooftop and pinnacle of Chianti Classico.

Querciabella was founded in 1974 by Giuseppe (Pepito) Castiglioni. His son Sebastiano Cossia Castiglioni, investor and entrepreneur, converted the estate to organic viticulture in 1988, making Querciabella one of the first wineries in Italy to employ this practice. In 2000 Sebastiano introduced a 100 per cent plant‑based approach to biodynamics that forbids the use of animal products in both the vineyards and in the cellars. The Chianti Classico estate that means “beautiful oak” has always been one that lives for today while always imagining and thinking about tomorrow. The wines arguably act as the most Bourguignons of any in the territory whilst always and unequivocally speaking for the land that gives them life.

In April of this year I asked Ing to assess the damage caused by uncharacteristic mid-Spring frosts. His response: “Unfortunately the cold weather that swiped through Tuscany on the April 6th and 7th caused us some frost damage, having hit especially those vineyards which were ahead in their development. Our team lead by Dales is still assessing the damage and it’s early to say how the affected vineyards will recuperate. We will know better in the coming weeks as the vines develop. In Chianti Classico, where our vineyard holdings are spread in different locations and altitude, isolated pockets of lower lying vineyards were affected, especially those around and below our cellar in Ruffoli. At a first glance, it appears that the frost bite hit some of the early budding Chardonnay and the young Sangiovese vines that were first out the blocks. Most of the higher altitude vineyards buds haven’t fully burst yet, so we are fortunate and remain hopeful. In Maremma, temperatures dipped to record lows in some areas, especially in the early hours of April 8th. The Sangiovese vines had an early start this year so were particularly exposed. Vines are an extraordinary plants which are known for bouncing back. At this stage we can only wait and see. It’s already clear, though, that we are among many other producers concerned about losing some crop to frost damage.”

It remains to be seen how pandemic and travel will play out over these next several weeks but I have every intention of climbing the Ruffoli hill this coming September (or anytime such an endeavour is possible) to see Manfred and team for a walk in the vineyards and a sit-down to taste more from their most excellent portfolio; Vineyard Operations Manager & Master Beekeeper Catiuscia Minori, Agronomist Chiara Capecci, Agronomist & Technical Director Dales D’Alessandro, Direct Sales & Visits Coordinator Daniela Krystyna Cappuccio, Head of Marketing and Communications Emilia Marinig, Global Sales Director Giorgio Fragiacomo, Winemaker Guido De Santi, Winemaking Director Luca Currado, Agronomist & Operations Manager Marco Torriti, CEO & Domestic Sales Director Roberto Lasorte, Marketing Assistant Manager Valentina Bertoli and of course Owner and Honorary Chairman Sebastiano Cossia Castiglioni. In the meantime here are the 10 wines we tasted and discussed back on May 31, 2021.

Felt quite real to be talking Ruffoli, Greve, Maremma, Gaiole and Radda with Tuscany’s groot South African winemaker @bottleofgrapes ~ A virtual session with @querciabella maintains the ties that bind with @chianticlassico

Querciabella Mongrana 2019, Marermma Toscana DOC (13653, $23.95)

From 31 hectares south of Grosseto, divided into two re-planted parcels purchased in 1998-1999 near to Alberese, a village and frazione of the commune. Wines are crushed and fermented in Maremma and then transferred to Greve just before or just after malo takes place. The style comes from cement and stainless steel, of fruit purity kept intact and a coastal influence developing some muscle. Picked ahead of Chianti Classico with harvest always beginning two to two and a half weeks ahead of Greve. So much Tuscan coastal bushy and dusty herbology, of fennel and rosemary primarily. Managed by Agronomist & Operations Manager Marco Torriti and team who are responsible for this 50-25-25, sangiovese led blend with cabernet sauvignon and merlot. Drink this by the glass everywhere you go, matching the pasta shape on the bottle, if you are so inclined, wherever possible. Mongrana goes as does L, Maquis shrubland ingrained into an easy drinking, fun, juicy and exuberant blend. Will never mess with any course, nor wine that comes before or after. Has been labelled DOC Maremma since 2017. Drink 2021-2024.  Tasted May 2021

Querciabella Chianti Classico DOCG 2018 (728816, $45.95)

Remains 100 per cent sangiovese, as it has been since 2012, as a three-commune collection; Ruffoli in Greve (40 per cent), on the Volpaia side and across the valley to Radda (20) and San Polo in Rosso from Gaiole (20), across the ravine from Ama. The totality of the Gaiole fruit is raised on Alberese, the Radda in schisty Galestro and Ruffoli, well Ruffoli is really about elevation. A no extremities vintage following a very cold winter and no climate spikes save for the early August heat. The Querciabella richness is foiled but also optimized by a three-part mineral harmony that does not so much cut but adds three district notes to the wine. The epiphany may or not begin with this 2018 but the textural perception has undergone a transformational alteration, now in defence against the drying effect of sangiovese’s tannin. The winemaking team has moved forward from the experimental stage into a full-on working contract with Piedmontese cappello sommerso, keeping the cap submerged for extended periods (up to 45 days). The high elevation fruit is particularly promising, forging true connectivity with the process. You get it completely, intuit the polish and this Annata just melts straight into inherit structure, again with thanks for a portion that has settled early. The wheel is constantly turning for Querciabella’s wines. Stupendo. Drink 2022-2032.  Tasted May 2021

Querciabella Chianti Classico Riserva DOCG 2017 ($79.95)

Riserva, like most Riservas in Chianti Classico is usually more serious, often blended with cabernet sauvignon and/or merlot, subjected to more wood. Since 2011 Querciabella’s has been 100 per cent sangiovese but still a three commune (Greve, Radda and Gaiole) cuvée, a vibrant varietal wine, lush as it needs to be and what stands apart is its simple purity. The picking decisions are made throughout the season, not just at harvest and certain blocks are given the attention of dramatic foreshadowing. Riserva by Querciabella is a wine of evolution, including monthly tastings along the way (with 20 per cent new wood involved). Riserva is a factor of a trajectory, of sangiovese that is always rising, gaining character, fortitude and fruit in vessel that winemaker Manfred Ing knows in his heart is meant for Riserva. The tannins tell the story, croccante is how he describes or the flavour and texture he looks for, in my mind like crunchy and caramelized almonds and dried wild strawberries of a concentrated yet developing sweetness. A wine to age, surely, though not quite like ’16, but do sleep on this because the efficacy, youthful binding and wound intensity show the promise of great ability. Drink 2023-2030.  Tasted May 2021

Querciabella Turpino 2017, IGT Toscana ($59.95)

First commercial vintage was 2010 when at the time it was 50-50 Maremma and Greve. Since 2015 it identifies as 100 per cent Tuscan coast with more barrel exercise and power than Mongrana, now a cuvée of approximately 12,000 bottles. “Turpino,” as in a character from Sebastiano Cossia Castiglioni’s favourite poem, like his son Orlando (and also for the names Mongrana and Palafreno). Frost was a major problem in 2017, followed by heat, no rain and vines that just went crazy. Small pickings were done in the first week of September and then the rain came. The vines dropped in alcohol potential by a degree but the vines were tired and so the fruit could not hang in there like it could (better so) in Ruffoli. A blend of 40 per cent each cabernet franc and syrah with (20) merlot. Spiciness but not in a traditionally Tuscan syrah (Cortona) way and so the franc is to thank for the pique, sharpness and pointed directive of this ripe wine agitative of pricks and sway. In the end this is truly Tuscan coast, carrying the dried and bushy herbs but with an extended olive branch, muscular arm and structured savour. Only 10,000 bottles were made of this succulent, strange bedfellows (for Tuscany) red wine. House wine, Querciabella style. Drink 2023-2028.  Tasted May 2021

Querciabella Camartina 2016, IGT Toscana

The first vintage for Camartina was 1981, originally mostly sangiovese, then in and around 2001-2003 turning towards becoming mostly cabernet sauvignon. Now at 70 per cent with (30) sangiovese since that 2003. With the most spectacular vintage in pocket the possibility and even more so the probability from 2016 is endless. A Vino da Tavola concept that has evolved to make for the most mature, wise and complex IGT from Ruffoli hillsides, but this vintage shows a special energy, liveliness and vim from acidity that gives the wine, regardless of grape varieties, so much youth and life. Another one of nature’s and Greve’s mysterious constants. So Querciabella, of pinpointed DNA. vibrancy and length. Drink 2023-2033.  Tasted May 2021

Querciabella Palafreno 2016, IGT Toscana ($214.95)

Since 2004 has always been 100 per cent merlot, before that being a 50-50 sangiovese and merlot joint. Has to be an ideal vintage for Sebastiano and Manfred to bottle this idealistic wine because it has to, must smell like Tuscany and Ruffoli. Places home to poetic settings which suggest inner meaning and invisible connections. With that essence of 2016, of high priority acidity, sapidity and vibrancy in mind, this drinks so well and truth is shows how merlot has been domesticated upon the Ruffoli hill. The vines average 20 years of age, with some vines nearly at 30, planted in 1995 and/or 1996. Sweet, verdant and grippy tannins with a little bit of grit are surely involved. This will show off some swarthy secondary character and essenza di tartufo in 10 years time. Only 3,000 bottles are made. Drink 2021-2031.  Tasted May 2021

Querciabella Chianti Classico DOCG 1998 (728816, Price at release: $31.95)

Twenty plus years later and not by any means over the hill. Drinking with captured and preserved youth from a vintage that was passed over for being one to not give any sort of great attention or consideration. Fermented in 225L (some new wood) barrels, some big tanks, picked later than most Chianti Classico of the time and would not have been pure sangiovese. You can feel the botrytis induced blood orange and saffron from a vintage with pioggia, pioggio, pioggia, a.k.a. so much rain. Also liquorice, bokser pod and a smell of wet tar. Really textural Classico, holding firm and strong, with a few years of interest and more complexity developing potential left to seek out. Charm begets pleasure which leads to unadulterated enjoyment. Drink 2021-2024.  Tasted May 2021

Querciabella Chianti Classico Riserva DOCG 1999

The 1999 was the last (original) Riserva produced until it was again resurrected in 2011 and what’s so cool about this vintage is how it was held to some early esteem, though paling in comparison to that “vintage of the century” that was 1997. Underestimated over the last 20 years, drinking so beautifully now, with frutta di bosca, tertiary tartufo and fungi. Just doesn’t strike as a fully mature adult reminiscing about the way things used to be but more like a wine with an outlook for more promise, good times and adventures still ahead. If you are still holding onto ‘99s from this part of Toscana you will be very pleased. Drink 2021-2026.  Tasted May 2021

Querciabella Batàr 2018, Toscana IGT ($149.95)

A joint between pinot blanc and chardonnay, whole bunch pressed, with furthered finer attention to detail, picked early in the morning and a decreased amount of new oak over the last 10 years. Now at about 20 per cent and less bâtonnage as well, keeping the strings tight and the backbone straight in the wine. “We don’t need to worry about getting richness in our wines,” tells Manfred Ing, and yes, the creaminess is automatic. There’s more bite to Batàr now, along with focus and precision, with an intention to allow for five (minimum) years ahead for energy to develop, flesh to increase and textural richness to become something naturally orchestrated over time. Batàr is a wine that defies flamboyance, deflates extroversion and muffles the most exultant cry. It knows what it is and what’s up. Terrific vintage for this singular, dual-focused and one goal achieved Querciabella bianco. Drink 2024-2029.  Tasted May 2021

Querciabella Batàr 2017, Toscana IGT ($149.95)

The effect of 2017 on white grapes meant a 40 per cent reduction in quantity and chardonnay surely suffered. Certainly true at 350m (south-facing) but also at 600m (on sandstone soils) where it thrives. The pinot bianco faces north so it did well in the season. The flinty reduction comes from the high elevation vineyard and you really notice it more in 2017, but also a fruit sweetness, like biting into a perfectly ripe apple, and also a peach. You still need to exercise patience with this wine because what it really shows you is how this particular cuvée will morph, oscillate and change, for sure and at least in its first five years. Definitely buttery, rich and creamy but let’s not sit on those laurels for too long because herbs, sapidity and a new kind of vim and vigour are just around the corner. A concentrated effort and one with many tricks up its Ruffoli sleeve. Drink 2022-2027.  Tasted May 2021

Good to go!

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Chianti Classico goes to eleven

New Chianti Classico UGA (Ùnita Geografiche Aggiuntive) Map

In a press release issued one week ago today the Consorzio Vino Chianti Classico made a significant and potentially profound announcement: The Chianti Classico UGA project is now under way. The Assembly of the Chianti Classico Wine Consortium has confirmed that the Gallo Nero‘s (Black Rooster) Additional Geographical Units (Ùnita Geografiche Aggiuntive or UGA) plan has been approved by a very large majority. “A project to modify the production regulations of the historic appellation, which includes two important innovations. In order to show the name of the village on the label.”

These last several years have seen the rise of Associazione Viticoltori or Vignaioli in zonazione, places of interest where microclimates and shared geologies bring land and producers together. Up until 2019 there were nine communes and then eight, but their significance was measured in geographic terms. Going forward there will be eleven zones with the ability to label using a menzione (mention) as the geographic marker that is aggiunta (​added) to the primary appellation. Back in 2018 I asked these two questions. “Will 2019 usher in a new era of Chianti Classico bottles noted by villages and crus on the labels? Will the Gran Selezione category seek 100 per cent sangiovese status?” 

Related – Chianti Classico’s Canadian dream

So yes, more than anything else this new sub-dividing of the territory will allow producers to list their sub-zone of origin on the front label of their Chianti Classico wines. In addition to the UGA, going forward the new regulations for the Gran Selezione category at the top of the Chianti Classico pyramid will be (a minimum) 90 per cent sangiovese with support by only native grapes. Current rules for Chianti Classico in all three appellative levels; Vintage (Annata), Riserva and Gran Selezione draw on the same ampelographic base: 80-100 per cent sangiovese and up to a maximum of 20 per cent of authorized native and/or international red grapes. According to the Consorzio “the exclusive use of native local grape varieties has been approved as complementary to sangiovese, since they are more expressive and representative of the production zone and of traditional Chianti wine-growing.”

Chianti Classico Topographical Map

Related – Chianti Classico: Nine communes deep

When asked when the new regulations will come into effect, the Consorzio’s Silvia Fiorentini had this to say. “We expect to be able to use the UGAs on the label next year, hopefully, but we cannot say yet which will be the first new vintage to carry the UGA names on the bottle. 2020 and 2019 could carry the UGA names if a winery can demonstrate the origin of the wine through the cellar register. The 90 per cent sangiovese and the prohibition of using international varieties will become compulsory only from the fifth year after the approval of the new production by the qualified authorities (as in the ministry of agriculture). This is meant for the few estates that cannot comply with the new ampelographic base and need to replant vineyards.” 

Ùnita Geograpiche Agguintive has been many years in the making for a territory with many significant sub-zones, micro-places with uniquely diverse soils and of particular micro-climates. They are the frazioni, collective growing sites often associated with and carrying the same name as a specific village, while other UGAs may refer to the commune in which they are located. The new Chianti Classico map covers 11 total UGAs; Castellina, Castelnuovo Berardenga, Gaiole, Greve, Lamole, Montefioralle, Panzano, Radda, San Casciano, San Donato in Poggio and Vagliali. The latter is the former western “butterfly wing” of the large Castelnuovo Berardenga commune; Lamole, Montefioralle and Panzano are each a uniquely situated frazione within Greve; San Donato in Poggio is a frazione and village within the commune of Barberino Tavarnelle, formerly the two communes (before 2019) of Barberino Val d’Elsa and Tavarnelle Val di Pesa. In the new UGA it will also include the area of Poggibonsi.

Sangiovese, Panzano in Chianti

Related – Grande, Chianti Classico

Just eight years after the Gran Selezione were first introduced in 2013 this development begins a new chapter and movement forward. Gran Selezione is now produced by 154 wineries for a total of 182 labels and represents about 6 per cent of the entire production of Chianti Classico. While it has always been the idea and wish of Consorzio President Giovanni Manetti to establish the Gran Selezione as 100 per cent sangiovese, this first step “compromise” effects the move towards that probability. The change eliminates the usage of international grapes like merlot and cabernet sauvignon from the GS, something many producers had already begun to do. In conjunction with the UGA breakdown it also sets up greater potential for having the top wines become those drawn form a single-vineyard, or at the very least wines produced with specific grapes identified by an additional geographical denomination on the label. While for now the new UGA designations only apply to the Gran Selezione category, ultimately speaking this will help the consumer drill down and further understand the notion of terroir (or acclimazione sottosuolo and genius loci) in Chianti Classico’s top tier wines. Just one step but it sets the region up for a long term plan where all of its DOCG wines will carry the promise of additional geographical notations on their labels.

Singolarità, qualità, diversità. Gallo Nero

Related – Chianti Classico is the future

“The decisions are based on such criteria as oenological recognizability, historical authenticity, renown and significance in terms of volumes produced. The intent of the UGA to represent the excellence of the territory, thus competing, in a more incisive way, with the greatest wines in the world.”

The watchword is to continue along the path of enhancing the distinctive characteristics of Chianti Classico,” notes the Consorzio. “A path that, in recent years, has brought the Black Rooster appellation ever higher in the international rankings of quality wines, increasing its fame, prestige and popularity on tables all over the world. The project, made possible by a concentrated effort by the Board of Directors over a number of years, responds to the need, arising from within the membership itself, for an increasingly far-reaching enhancement of the characteristics that distinguish the Black Rooster appellation and make it unique.”

Gallo Nero Lounge, Chianti Classico Collection 2020

National and European regulations do in fact allow DOP wines to refer to additional geographical units, identified within the production area of the denomination. “One of the objectives of the proposed amendment is to strengthen communication of the wine-territory combination, increase quality in terms of identity and territoriality, allow consumers to know where the grapes come from and, last but not least, stimulate demand by differentiating supply. The introduction of the name of the village on the label will serve to intercept and satisfy the interest of consumers who, in increasing numbers, wish to deepen their knowledge of the relationship between Gallo Nero wines and their territory of origin.”

Chianti Classico Consorzio President Giovanni Manetti

Related – The most important red wine from Italy

“The phrase the territory makes the difference has always been one of our favourite mottos,” says Giovanni Manetti, President of the Consortium. “Chianti Classico is a truly unique territory, two-thirds of which is covered by woodland and only one-tenth of which is devoted to wine-growing. More than 50 per cent of this now follows the dictates of organic farming (52.5 per cent of the area under vine). As I have often said in my three years as President, wine reflects the territory like a negative photographic image, and this is why it is so important to preserve its environmental context and landscape, and be able to tell the consumer about it, in all its various facets, also through the label.”

Good to go!

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Chianti Classico UGA

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When frost strikes, Chianti Classico responds

Assessing bud damage to Sangiovese, Villa Le Corti, San Casciano (c) Duccio Corsini

Difficult times call for desperate measures and if these last 14 months have taught Italians anything, taking nothing for granted is surely at the top of the list. If you are a grape grower, or any agriculturalist for that matter then the one thing you almost come to expect and dread more than anything is the arrival of a Spring frost, after bud-break. That worst nightmare has come to parts of Chianti Classico (along with Montalcino, Emilia-Romagna, Piemonte and Bourgogne) in the week following Easter. The worst hit area may be Maremma and the Tuscan coast. The reports coming out of the Gallo Nero territory are not what we would have wanted to hear from and for our friends in the Tuscan provinces of Firenze and Siena.

Fires in the vineyard, Villa Le Corti, San Casciano (c) Duccio Corsini

Fires in the vineyard, Villa Le Corti, San Casciano (c) Duccio Corsini

Chianti Classico is a proud and noble territory with just slightly only 10 per cent of its hectarage registered to vineyard space. The last three vintages were all relatively stress free, especially those of 2018 and 2019, whereas in 2020 the vegetative life cycle began during a global pandemic and yet farmers had nothing but time to tend to their vineyards during lockdown. In 2021 the sangiovese vines came to life early, following a decent and mostly proper winter though one that ended in haste, turning over to warm March temperatures. And now, even if the potential for disaster has struck, hope and resilience prevails.

Temperatures dipped to overnight lows of minus six degrees celsius, dangerous and potentially fatal to the youngest sangiovese vines, especially in low-lying areas where frost settles on lower slopes and valley floors. It really is too early to fully assess the extent of the damage but the range, based on comments heard thus far, is anywhere from near zero in the highest reaches and oldest vineyards to anywhere between 50 and 100 in other areas. I have spent a good part of Friday evening until now talking with producers and here are their stories. There is much concern but always hope, pragmatism and a collected, positive outlook. The comments and images are still coming in so I will update the story as it goes.

*** Editor’s note: Comments from 35 producers are now posted, including new images

The frost in 2017 was much worse than this

Giovanni Manetti, Fontodi

Fontodi, Panzano, April 9th, 2021 (c) Giovanni Manetti

Giovanni Manetti, Fontodi: “We had a couple of days very cold, April 6th and 7th but the damages are limited to the young vines. The majority of the buds of the other vines were still closed and were not hurt by the frost. In the rest of the CC territory there were some damages in the warmer areas and zero in the cooler ones like Radda and Lamole. The frost in 2017 was much more worse than this. It is very hard to say how much quantity has been lost in CC but I think not too much.”

Duccio Corsini, Villa Le Corti, San Casciano: “San Casciano has the habit of being in (bud-break) advance. Minus two celsius came the morning of the 7th (5:00 to 7:00 am) and we made it with no damage. Minus five came from 4.30 to 6.30 am on the 8th. We kept the prunings in piles for this event. At 4:45 am Le Corti was on fire were possible. To this we added the use of the spraying machines vents to move air and create circulation. I hope the experiment (very artisanal) helped to reduce damage. So far the damage goes from 10 to 40 per cent on sangiovese in the best expositions. Nothing on merlot (that is still sleeping). Fico vineyard (solo sangiovese) is safe. Marsiliana on the coast is a different story. All merlot was burned from minus seven on the morning of the 8th. Total loss on 6 hectares. We are collecting info from San Casciano producers and news so far is not good on sangiovese.”

Villa Calcinaia
(c) Conte Sebastiano Capponi

The damage is still difficult to evaluate since many buds hadn’t broken yet

Sebastiano Capponi, Villa Calcinaia

Sebastiano Capponi, Villa Calcinaia, Greve: “Unfortunately Jack Frost has visited us again this year, three times in the last quinquennium, and the damage is still difficult to evaluate since many buds hadn’t broken yet. I think it would be less than 2017 but we certainly could have done without it. The worst night was Wednesday because it had just rained a little and that spiked the humidity beyond 90 per cent. In fact in the areas of Montefioralle where it hadn’t rained the damage was less intense. The varietal more heavily hit was the sangiovese as canaiolo, mammolo, montepulciano and merlot buds break usually later. Funnily enough the sangiovese buds, like in Vigna Bastignano, that already the leaves out were less damaged than the swollen ones. An igloo effect saved them? I wonder… Vines will adapt but in order to accelerate the process though I will start selecting biotypes of Sangiovese with late bud-break from our collection for the new plantings.”

It’s going to be a slim harvest!  Climate disruption…again!

Roberto Stucchi-Prinetti, Badia a Coltibuono

Roberto Stucchi-Prinetti, Badia a Coltibuono, Gaiole: “The frost hit badly, temperatures dipped to minus four and even minus six degrees celsius in the lower parts; unfortunately the buds had an early start so they were all ready to go.  The damage is probably over 50 per cent but we will assess it better next week. It’s going to be a slim harvest!  Climate disruption…again! Sad.”

Young Sangiovese buds, fires in the vineyard, Villa Le Corti, San Casciano
(c) Duccio Corsini

Federica Mascheroni, Volpaia, Radda: “This frost was really what we weren’t looking for! Luckily in Volpaia the damages are not very much, the altitude has helped us. Unfortunately, unexpectedly we had a very strong and unpredictable frost. We will see in the next few days, but I think we had several damage 😦 “

Susanna Grassi, I Fabbri, Lamole: “We are OK, but as you said in Tuscany, as in many other places, we had frost during two nights. We will see in a couple of days the true damage.”

After the frost, Villa Le Corti, San Casciano (c) Duccio Corsini

Vicky Schmitt-Vitali, Le Fonti, Panzano: “Le Fonti is positioned quite open to the winds so most vineyards fared OK with the frost. Only one small patch protected by trees and bamboo at the bottom of the valley got freeze burned. The other side of the valley got hit worse so we have to be grateful with all. Not that 2021 is much better so far than 2020… a mess worldwide. Heard that Montalcino got hit badly and some areas in Emilia-Romagna and Piemonte. France of course was all over the news. Really when it rains it pours. Iacopo had said that Molino di Grace got hit quite badly as well. Lucarelli (small village underneath Molino) is always very cold and our tractor driver lives there and said that his house was minus six the past few nights. All fruit trees burned but his vines had not been out yet so he was lucky.”

Nature is amazing because it might react in surprising ways

Francesco Ricasoli, Barone Ricasoli

Francesco Ricasoli, Barone Ricasoli, Gaiole: “We have been hit by the frost but the real entity of the damage will be clear in five to seven days. I estimate 30 or 40 hectares hit by frost but the per cent of loss is not clear yet. Nature is amazing because it might react in surprising ways.”

Healthy sangiovese bud, Geggiano, Castelnuovo Berardenga, first days of April, 2021 (c) Andrea Boscu Bianchi Bandinelli

Michael Schmelzer, Monte Bernardi, Panzano: “We too had a couple of sub-zero nights and certainly had some loss due to frost damage. We were fortunate in that not many of our vines had their first leaves exposed yet so we are hoping the damage is very limited.”

Andrea Boscu Bianchi Bandinelli, Geggiano, Castelnuovo Berardenga: “We spray the vines with salts of Zeolite but they help only up to minus one celsius. And so we have had a loss of about 30 per cent.”

Sangiovese bud after the frost, Losi Querciavalle, Castelnuovo Berardenga, April 8, 2021 (c) Valeria Losi

Valeria Losi, Losi Querciavalle, Castelnuovo Berardenga: “It depends on the position of the vineyards: We have had some loss but that should be around 20-25 per cent. I heard friends with a different position that lost 50 per cent. And producers from the Tuscan coast even higher.”

Angela Fronti, Istine, Radda: “It’s not good, but better than in other areas of production. The budding was not 100 per cent complete so I hope for production. It’s terrible, you can do nothing, only waiting. We have to see. I hope the damage is less than what we can see now.”

Frost damage to sangiovese buds, Losi Querciavalle, Castelnuovo Berardenga, April 8, 2021 (c) Valeria Losi

Victoria Matta, Castello di Vicchiomaggio, Greve: “We have been affected in some vineyards, the ones with vegetation further ahead. Unfortunately the unexpected hot temperatures of two to three weeks ago have permitted the vines to grown faster than usual so the cold temperature of days ago affected these. The real problem was the unusual heat of mid-March. We will be ready for next year with anti-frost candles. That is the climate change, unfortunately.”

Tommaso Marocchesi Marzi, Bibbiano, Castellina: “We have a rough and quick assessment of a minus 30-40 per cent of the production. The lower slopes have been largely hit and the areas around 280-300m of altitude were safer.”

Frost effect on sangiovese buds, Fattoria Pomona, Castellina (c) Monica Raspi

Dario Faccin, Carobbio, Panzano: “Unfortunately the frost hit hard but fortunately some vineyards were still standing. I hope the weather can be mild from now on.”

Federico Cerelli, Gabbiano, San Casciano: “The frost was just what we didn’t want right now…but anyway for the wineries I’m working with in Chianti Classico:

– Gabbiano : In the night between Wednesday and Thursday there was another sharp drop in temperature. The temperature dropped to minus five in the area where the sangiovese had already germinated. Unfortunately the treatment worked well enough on Wednesday morning, but on Thursday morning the temperature was too low. Merlot, cabernet and syrah were not damaged. It is still too early to make an estimate for sangiovese. We pruned long this year and we need to understand how many grapes will make in the second buds.

– Radda in Chianti (Poggio di Guardia): Thanks to high altitude (700m) the vines were completely stopped so no damage.

– Greve in Chianti (vineyards around Greve village): All the new vineyards are affected, regarding the old one some damage but at this stage is not early to estimate the damages, as we can not forecast what the impact on fertility will be.

– Vagliagli area : All the lower vineyards are affected but again too early to forecast the real damage in quantity of grapes lost. The higher vineyard we don’t have damages.

Damage by Nottua, parasitic bugs that eat the young buds, Fattoria Pomona, Castellina in Chianti (c) Monica Raspi

Francesca Semplici, Fattoria Montecchio, San Donato in Poggio: “Unfortunately we had burned vines for two cold nights. We lost a part of our production also this year, like last year but for iced rain :-(“

Beatrice Ancillotti, Castello di Monterinaldi, Radda: “Fortunately, here in Radda in Chianti we are a little behind with budding. We had some problems on the lower vineyards, those closest to the river. Monday I will go back to check (because the damage shows a few days later). I’ll let you know if the situation is worse.”

Lighting vineyard fires by night, Bindi Sergardi, Castelnuovo Berardenga (c) Alessandra Casini Bindi Sergardi

Giacomo Nardi, Nardi Viticoltori, Castellina: “Since we are on the lower slope of Castellina in Chianti, the vegetative phase was not yet advanced, luckily the damage was not so great. I would estimate the damage at five to 10 per cent, but I will be able to understand better in the coming weeks.”

Crossing fingers looks it’s becoming the most popular sport discipline all over the world in these last two years

Alessandro Palombo, Luiano

Filippo Cresti, Carpineta Fontalpino, Castelnouvo Berardenga: “The cold has hit different areas. It did not have a uniform incidence. Personally we had parcels affected by 10 to 25 per cent, some vineyards near to zero damage. We were lucky, other areas much less than us. Some varieties of sangiovese in Carpineta were further back and this protected them. From now we are waiting only the sun and the good season.”

Vineyard fires smoulder at dawn, Bindi Sergardi, Castelnuovo Berardenga (c) Alessandra Casini Bindi Sergardi

Luca Polga, Podere Campriano, Greve: “For us and many of Montefioralle’s winemakers this has been two difficult days. In some areas temperatures reached minus seven degrees celsius. Here it’s too early to understand the damages, fortunately we were a little bit late, so many gems were still closed and we really really hope were not burned. In a few days we will know.”

Alessandro Palombo, Luiano, San Casciano: “It’s been like a punch in the nose. Vines have been affected and the spirit of the troops was too! Early April frost usually happens and this hit a lot of early blossoming buds. It generally lowers the yields but still leaves the vineyard productive. This year’s drop in temperature was different, it went down to levels that may affect the buds that were still closed or lightly open. In this second case the impact will be severe. We’ll see it in a couple of weeks. We keep our fingers crossed… crossing fingers looks it’s becoming the most popular sport discipline all over the world in these last two years.” 😒

Sangiovese buds braving the frosts, Bindi Sergardi, Castelnuovo Berardenga (c) Alessandra Casini Bindi Sergardi

Alyson Morgan, Podere Capaccia, Radda: “Here at Capaccia we are pretty safe since the vineyards are all over 350 meters. But we did have damage on vines that we planted last year to replace some missing vines….those young vines bud out early and are more susceptible. There was significant damage in the warmer, more exposed regions like Castelnuovo Berardenga. I have a friend that probably lost 50 per cent of the sangiovese. Their temps went down to minus seven Celsius!! In Radda the temps were low in the valleys and in the colder areas (example Caparsa), but those areas are further behind in the development so there was nothing to damage. If we can get through April without any more frost, the season will be fine. We are FINALLY getting some rain today, it has been so dry for so long. So all in all, a positive assessment from the frost.”

Monica Raspi, Fattoria Pomona, Castellina: “We had some trouble in different parts, the new vineyard was in advance and many buds are burnt. I would like to bend those plants next year, but I think that will be impossible. The others vineyards more or less are OK. Most of buds are still closed, and I think they were protected.For many producers it is a disaster. E poi c’è la Nottua. Che si mangia le gemme…and then there is the Nottua (parasite). That eat the gems.”

Post frost sangiovese, Il Molino di Grace, Panzano (c) Iacopo Morganti

Chiara Leonini, Fèlsina, Castelnuovo Berardenga: “Yes, temperatures went below zero for two nights, Thursday and Friday last week. In Fèlsina vineyards the budding was just at the beginning, a bit more forward in the Pagliarese area. We had a few small problems at Fèlsina, something more at Pagliarese, where we expect a loss of about 20 per cent. it could have been much worse if the temperatures hadn’t risen. Everything is under control now, it is raining today and it is a good things, with 15 degrees.”

The recent late frost wave has caught Radda unprepared but luckily still half asleep, like ‘Sleeping Beauty’ in the forest.

Roberto Bianchi, Val delle Corti

Roberto Bianchi, Val delle Corti, Radda: “As you well know, Radda has always been a ‘late bloomer’ in all senses : in the past 2.700 years all neighbouring areas in Chianti have developed better and faster than Radda, economically, culturally and …. in terms of vegetation in the vineyards. Climate change – along with a new awareness and some more holistic knowledge – have radically upset the situation. Former handicaps have become the keys to balance and quality, where correctly managed. All this to tell you, caro mio, that the recent late frost wave has caught Radda unprepared but luckily still half asleep, like ‘Sleeping Beauty’ in the forest. Buds were still closed in most of the areas here and random minor damages are recorded in some low-located, creek-close vineyards and/or unexpectedly also in hedge vineyards. Some evident damages are reported there, where vegetation was ahead, especially in young vineyards (one to three years). All together Radda terroir reports not dramatic damages, affecting maybe overall around 10 per cent of total vineyard surface. Far away from what has been reported to be a scaring situation in the areas around San Casciano, West Castellina, West Panzano, South Gaiole and Castelnuovo Berardenga, traditionally a couple of weeks ahead of Radda by vegetation. Sadly, many friends in Montalcino and in the Maremma have reported devastating damages in their areas, affecting sometimes 80 per cent of the vintage production. The same in Langa. One fears that the 2021 overall production in Tuscany and Piedmont could possibly drop this year by 50 per cent !!!! All we hope now is that spring takes it ways steadily. Good rain has been coming down for the past 48 hours and this was really needed.”

Young sangiovese buds at Rocca delle Macìe, April 2021 (c) Sergio Zingarelli

Natascia Rossini, Podere La Cappella, San Donato in Poggio: “Not easy to assess now the damage from cold temperatures… maybe in a few weeks we will have more clear details. It seems the low parts of vineyard (150m) are the ones more damaged. Bruno says that probably we lost 10-15 per cent of production.”

A very important frost but not more than 2017 and 2020

Sergio Zingarelli, Rocca delle Macìe

Sergio Zingarelli, Rocca delle Macìe, Castellina: “Such an intense period…We had two nights, the 6th & 7th, with very low temperatures mostly concentrated in the early morning hours between 5 and 8 am. The biggest damage has been to the vines in the lower vineyards (under approx. 280m) where there was more humidity. Other damage is seen in the “higher” vineyards to the younger vines that were growing faster. A very important frost but not more than 2017 and 2020. As you know we have four different estates in Castellina in Chianti with different soils, exposures, altitudes … and the most affected are Sant’Alfonso (lower altitude, mostly clay soil) and the lowest side of Fizzano. Le Macìe, keeping our fingers crossed, have not been affected. We’ve just had two great and very useful days of rain which is sure to give new starting energy to the vines for next days…”

Sangiovese buds burnt by frost, Rocca delle Macìe, April 2021 (c) Sergio Zingarelli

Laura Bianchi, Castello di Monsanto, San Donato in Poggio: “We had last week two dangerous nights with minus one to two degrees celsius. For sure there has been some damages above all in the sides of the vineyards located in less ventilated areas. The varietal with more damage is chardonnay. We now need to see the situation in the next weeks, also a light frost can reduce the strength of the buds and this will effect the flowering. For sure less production in 2021 but hopefully a great one.”

Paolo de Marchi, Isole e Olena, San Donato in Poggio: “Yes, temperatures have been low and we did get damages. Not able to quantify how bad though…but three mornings in a line, and it seems it’s not over yet. What can we do? This is our business, and we have never to forget the big scenario. We are lucky to work mostly with red wines for aging, so we carry a good stock and are able to average the disaster. Much worse for our friends colleagues producing only whites…”

Leonardo Bellaccini, San Felice, Castelnuovo Berardenga: “We have lost 30 per cent of sangiovese at San Felice. We expect another small crop wishing for an outstanding quality.”

Rocca delle Macìe, April 2021 (c) Sergio Zingarelli

What else can I say to our friends in Chianti Classico but best of luck with this latest challenge and exasperating need to wage such a battle, but I know them well enough to say that resilience is what they are all about. The same holds true for sangiovese vineyards. Grandi abbracci e spero presto si possa nuovamente viaggiare e ci si possa rivedere per un buon bicchiere di vino.

Good to go,

Godello

Assessing bud damage to Sangiovese, Villa Le Corti, San Casciano (c) Duccio Corsini

Twitter: @mgodello

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